TYPES OF GLAUCOMA


Open-angle glaucoma

It is the most common type of glaucoma. Occurs at an advanced age (50-60 years). The pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure) increases and damages the optic nerve when the function of the drainage angle is impaired over years and the vitreous humor cannot be drained sufficiently. Eye pressure is mostly in the range of 12-20 mmHg in normal individuals. In glaucoma patients, this value usually exceeds 20 mmHg. However, the optic nerve can be damaged even when the eye pressure values are normal in some people with a sensitive optic nerve. Individuals with a high eye pressure who haven't developed glaucoma damage yet are described as ocular hypertensive people. Patients diagnosed with glaucoma-related optic nerve damage must receive treatment. Unfortunately, glaucoma doesn't manifest itself with symptoms. Since central vision isn't affected at early stages, patients cannot notice the loss of vision. Therefore, it is important to have an eye screening at the age of 40 and once every year in one's 50s. Depending on the level of damage to the optic nerve, regional losses develop in the visual field initially. With disease progression, these regions are combined, resulting in large losses in visual field. Blindness develops when the optic nerve is totally damaged.

Narrow-angle glaucoma

This is a rare type of glaucoma. It develops in hyperopic eyes, which are generally smaller in size, with the iris (the eye's colored part) tissue positioned very near the drainage angle, closing the angle. With the closed drainage angle blocking drainage of the vitreous humor, the eye pressure suddenly increases up to 40-50 mmHg. This is a very painful condition. There can be accompanying nausea-vomiting and vision becomes blurred. This condition should be treated urgently and may result in permanent blindness. In some patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, the angle may be closed gradually within years.