Many surface cleaners and chemicals currently used in homes and in industry can cause serious damage to the cornea and ocular surface. Among them, hydrochloric acid, drain openers and alkalis such as quicklime are particularly hazardous. When an injury happens, the eyes should be washed with plenty of clean water and a nearby eye clinic should be consulted. Medication, covering of the ocular surface with a special tissue, stem cell transplantation and, in more severe cases, corneal transplantation can be required.