Thyroid-Related Eye Diseases (Graves' Disease)
Certain eye disorders and deformities occur in some diseases of the thyroid gland, which plays a significant role in the regulation of metabolism. This is more common in cases of over-functioning of the thyroid gland (hyperthyroidism). Findings include protrusion of the eyeballs (exophthalmia, proptosis), an eyelid distance that is too wide, strabismus, double vision and reduced vision. Called "thyroid-associated orbitopathy" or "Graves' orbitopathy", this disease can be very mild or severe enough to result in loss of vision. Treatment is determined based on the stage and severity of disease and whether it is active or not.
There are microbial infections and non-microbial orbital inflammation which are related to the body's immune system. Microbial inflammation often develops in children following sinus infections but can also occur at any age due to various factors, particularly after trauma. Unless treated appropriately at an early stage, it can threaten vision and life. Depending on the case, medication or surgical treatment can be used. Radiotherapy may be necessary when there is no response to cortisone therapy.
Benign or malignant tumors make up approximately 20% of all orbital diseases. Tumors can be life-threatening when they spread to periocular tissues and other organs, particularly the brain. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of diseases is important.
Orbital injuries can be life-threatening because of the proximity to vital organs. Hence, the patient is first assessed for brain functions and the respiratory tract. The eyes are very likely to be affected by orbital injuries as well. So the condition of the eyes should be evaluated as a priority. Surgical treatment is applied.
Congenitally Small or Absent Eye
Since it is the size and presence of the eye which develops epiocular tissues, the eyelids, soft tissues around the eyes and the bone frame cannot grow sufficiently when the eyes are not developed. Conformers (devices which are gradually increased in size) are used for mild and moderate cases; more severe cases require surgery.