Eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty) involves removing the excess fat, muscle and skin tissue in the upper and lower eyelids, stretching the periocular regions that support these tissues. This surgical intervention allows correcting saggy, turned-in or turned-out upper and lower eyelids, eye bags forming due to trapped excess fat and wrinkles around the eyes, and giving the patient a more youthful and energetic look by getting rid of their former old and tired appearance.
Preparation for Surgery
Preoperative planning for surgery is important. Your doctor should inform you about the surgical technique and tell you what to do and what not to do concerning your operation. The effects of drug use, smoking, alcohol consumption and some vitamins on the surgery should be explained to you. Also, if required at the preoperative examination of eye functions, an examination by an ophthalmologist specialized in ocular diseases is requested.
Surgical procedures may be performed under general or local anesthesia depending on the circumstances.
Both eyelids and the area around the eyelids are swollen during the first two days after surgery. An ice pack is applied on the eyes on the first day following operation to reduce such swelling. In addition, antibiotics, swelling reducers and painkillers are given. Eye drops are also used to prevent dryness and antibiotic eye ointments are given to protect the inside of the eye. Home rest is recommended after the patient is discharged, particularly for the first two days. The patient is asked to return for controls at certain intervals, depending on the nature of the surgery.
It is an eye infection. The disease develops in 1-2 days. It manifests itself with stinging in the eye and tensioning of the eyelid.Formation of the sty can be prevented with eye drops, antibiotics and ointments in case of early diagnosis, but the disease resolves at a later stage since diagnosis often takes more than 1-2 days. Advanced forms of the disease include chalazion and blepharitis.
Drooping of the upper eyelid is called ptosis. Drooping eyelids can be seen in newborns, adults and elderly people. Ptosis is treated by surgery. The distance between upper and lower eyelids varies between people. The common method of treatment is surgery. Surgical method is determined with an examination of the eyelid.
Age-Related Eyelid Changes
Eyebrows and eyelids droop with aging, the lower eyelid becomes turned in or turned out; bags, hollowness and wrinkles form around the eyes. Such changes not only occur with aging but also may be seen in younger people as a result of heredity. The changes around the eyelids give the person an unhappy, tired and sleepy look. The method of treatment is determined according to the type of problem.
Eyelash Abnormalities (Trichiasis, Distichiasis)
Eyelash abnormalities can be congenital (distichiasis) or acquired after certain diseases of the eyelids, with the turning in of the eyelid's edge (entropion) or ingrowing of the eyelashes (trichiasis). The treatment is surgery.
The majority of the tumors in and around the eyelids are benign. If persistent wounds develop in the eyelids, an ophthalmologist should be consulted to find out if they are related to a malignant tumor. The treatment is surgery.
Eyelids may suffer physical (traffic accidents, injuries etc.) or chemical (bleach, spirit of salt, detergents, lime etc.) injuries. Serious disorders in vision and shape may develop unless appropriate treatment is administered at an early stage.
Congenital Disorders of the Eyelid
Drooping eyelids (ptosis) are the most common type of congenital disorders of the eyelid. Other eyelid disorders include adhesion of the eyelids to each other (ankyloblepharon), turning in (entropion) or turning out of the eyelid (ectropion), full-thickness defect of the eyelid (coloboma) and extra row of eyelashes (distichiasis).
Involuntary Spasm of the Eyelid (Blepharospasm)
These are periocular spasms of unknown origin. It is seen at middle and advanced ages. Some patients cannot use their eyes because of the spasms and this affects their daily life greatly. Medication or surgical treatment can be used depending on the case.
Turned-In Eyelids (Entropion)
Usually affecting the lower eyelid, entropion occurs when the eyelid folds inward. Entropion can be congenital or acquired. Surgical treatment is applied.
Turned-Out Eyelids (Ectropion)
Turned-out eyelids often develop with aging. It may also develop as a result of palsy of the nerve that closes the eyelid (facial palsy) or after injuries. Surgical treatment is applied.
Facial palsy occurs when the nerve that moves the eyebrows, eyelids and the face cannot function for whatever reason. Medical treatment is given to protect the eyes in case of temporary paralysis. Different surgical treatments are applied in case of permanent paralysis.
Under Eye Bags
Genetics, i.e. heredity, is the most important factor causing under eye bags. Under eye bags make the person look older and more tired than they actually are. Treatment consists of removing or replacing fat tissues.
Operations can be performed under local anesthesia and effects are long-lasting. Interventions in the lower eyelid are mostly possible without skin incisions, from inside the eyelid. This eliminates the risk of scars or deformities in the eyelid after the operation.
Patients may have drooping eyebrows in addition to drooping eyelids. The outer sides of the eyebrows may fall downward with gravity as a result of aging or genetic factors. This creates a load and excess skin on the eyelid, spoiling the esthetic appearance.
In direct browpexy, a parallel suture is made immediately above the eyebrows and the brow is lifted. The incision can be made by a scalpel or carbon dioxide laser. The incision scar can be noticed to a degree for 3-6 months.
In internal browpexy, an incision is made at the brow line as in the technique called blepharoplasty. It is particularly effective in case of drooping of the 1/3 outer brow. This method leaves no scars on the brow.